Today we’ll do a simple run through of a valuation method used to estimate the attractiveness of Haverty Furniture Companies, Inc. (NYSE:HVT) as an investment opportunity by taking the forecast future cash flows of the company and discounting them back to today’s value. We will take advantage of the Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) model for this purpose. Models like these may appear beyond the comprehension of a lay person, but they’re fairly easy to follow.

Remember though, that there are many ways to estimate a company’s value, and a DCF is just one method. Anyone interested in learning a bit more about intrinsic value should have a read of the Simply Wall St analysis model.

Is Haverty Furniture Companies fairly valued?

We use what is known as a 2-stage model, which simply means we have two different periods of growth rates for the company’s cash flows. Generally the first stage is higher growth, and the second stage is a lower growth phase. In the first stage we need to estimate the cash flows to the business over the next ten years. Where possible we use analyst estimates, but when these aren’t available we extrapolate the previous free cash flow (FCF) from the last estimate or reported value. We assume companies with shrinking free cash flow will slow their rate of shrinkage, and that companies with growing free cash flow will see their growth rate slow, over this period. We do this to reflect that growth tends to slow more in the early years than it does in later years.

A DCF is all about the idea that a dollar in the future is less valuable than a dollar today, so we need to discount the sum of these future cash flows to arrive at a present value estimate:

10-year free cash flow (FCF) estimate

2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 2031
Levered FCF ($, Millions) US$60.5m US$56.5m US$54.2m US$52.9m US$52.4m US$52.4m US$52.7m US$53.2m US$53.8m US$54.6m
Growth Rate Estimate Source Analyst x1 Est @ -6.67% Est @ -4.07% Est @ -2.25% Est @ -0.98% Est @ -0.09% Est @ 0.53% Est @ 0.97% Est @ 1.28% Est @ 1.49%
Present Value ($, Millions) Discounted @ 9.0% US$55.5 US$47.6 US$41.9 US$37.6 US$34.1 US$31.3 US$28.9 US$26.8 US$24.9 US$23.2

(“Est” = FCF growth rate estimated by Simply Wall St)
Present Value of 10-year Cash Flow (PVCF) = US$351m

After calculating the present value of future cash flows in the initial 10-year period, we need to calculate the Terminal Value, which accounts for all future cash flows beyond the first stage. For a number of reasons a very conservative growth rate is used that cannot exceed that of a country’s GDP growth. In this case we have used the 5-year average of the 10-year government bond yield (2.0%) to estimate future growth. In the same way as with the 10-year ‘growth’ period, we discount future cash flows to today’s value, using a cost of equity of 9.0%.

Terminal Value (TV)= FCF2031 × (1 + g) ÷ (r – g) = US$55m× (1 + 2.0%) ÷ (9.0%– 2.0%) = US$799m

Present Value of Terminal Value (PVTV)= TV / (1 + r)10= US$799m÷ ( 1 + 9.0%)10= US$339m

The total value, or equity value, is then the sum of the present value of the future cash flows, which in this case is US$690m. The last step is to then divide the equity value by the number of shares outstanding. Compared to the current share price of US$35.2, the company appears about fair value at a 6.5% discount to where the stock price trades currently. Valuations are imprecise instruments though, rather like a telescope – move a few degrees and end up in a different galaxy. Do keep this in mind.

NYSE:HVT Discounted Cash Flow August 22nd 2021

Important assumptions

Now the most important inputs to a discounted cash flow are the discount rate, and of course, the actual cash flows. Part of investing is coming up with your own evaluation of a company’s future performance, so try the calculation yourself and check your own assumptions. The DCF also does not consider the possible cyclicality of an industry, or a company’s future capital requirements, so it does not give a full picture of a company’s potential performance. Given that we are looking at Haverty Furniture Companies as potential shareholders, the cost of equity is used as the discount rate, rather than the cost of capital (or weighted average cost of capital, WACC) which accounts for debt. In this calculation we’ve used 9.0%, which is based on a levered beta of 1.478. Beta is a measure of a stock’s volatility, compared to the market as a whole. We get our beta from the industry average beta of globally comparable companies, with an imposed limit between 0.8 and 2.0, which is a reasonable range for a stable business.

Next Steps:

Whilst important, the DCF calculation ideally won’t be the sole piece of analysis you scrutinize for a company. DCF models are not the be-all and end-all of investment valuation. Preferably you’d apply different cases and assumptions and see how they would impact the company’s valuation. For instance, if the terminal value growth rate is adjusted slightly, it can dramatically alter the overall result. For Haverty Furniture Companies, we’ve put together three fundamental aspects you should further research:

  1. Risks: Take risks, for example – Haverty Furniture Companies has 3 warning signs (and 1 which is potentially serious) we think you should know about.
  2. Future Earnings: How does HVT’s growth rate compare to its peers and the wider market? Dig deeper into the analyst consensus number for the upcoming years by interacting with our free analyst growth expectation chart.
  3. Other Solid Businesses: Low debt, high returns on equity and good past performance are fundamental to a strong business. Why not explore our interactive list of stocks with solid business fundamentals to see if there are other companies you may not have considered!

PS. Simply Wall St updates its DCF calculation for every American stock every day, so if you want to find the intrinsic value of any other stock just search here.

This article by Simply Wall St is general in nature. We provide commentary based on historical data and analyst forecasts only using an unbiased methodology and our articles are not intended to be financial advice. It does not constitute a recommendation to buy or sell any stock, and does not take account of your objectives, or your financial situation. We aim to bring you long-term focused analysis driven by fundamental data. Note that our analysis may not factor in the latest price-sensitive company announcements or qualitative material. Simply Wall St has no position in any stocks mentioned.

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